Modern methods of higher mental functions studies in human by using of psychophysiological methods. Brain-computer interfaces.

Credits: 
1.00
Date: 
16.06.2011
Organizers: 
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Coordinator: 
Victoria Moiseeva
Speaker: 
A. Kaplan, A. Kochetova, A. Kotenev, V. Moiseeva, A. Latanov, V. Shulgovskiy, M. Slavutskaya,
Minimal requirements: 
Students are expected to have basic knowledge of electro- and psychophysiology. Students may have personal laptops at the workshops
Description: 

Course will be held in Auditorium 462, department of Higher nervous Activity, Biological faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University at 16-18 of June,  2011

Language: Russian & English

The course schedule will be announced later.

 Contact person: Moiseeva Victoria, PhD, senior scientist, department of Higher nervous Activity, Biological faculty of Lomonosov MSU, vikmoi@mail.ru

 Deadline for registration - 10.05.2011

Course consists from tree modules:

  1. Investigation of cognitive processes by using of event –related potentials registration in the process of saccade programming. (Shulgovskiy V.V., Slavutskay M.V., Moiseeva V.V., Kotenev A.V.),
  2. Electorophysiological correlates of the processes of selective attention at the visual search task solution in human (by using of videooculography method) (Latanov A.V.)
  3. Modern neurotechnologies: Brain-computer interfaces (Kaplan A. Ia., Kochetova A.G.)

Module 1  - 16.06.2011.

Sulgovskiy V.V. Lecture (1.5 – 2 academic hours) Psychophysiology today and in the future.

The psychophysiology was allocated in a separate branch of the science in seventies of the 20th century. Psychophysiology is filled by the content of brain physiology, achievements of psychology and the data of clinical researches. Noninvasive methods of human brain researches are in the basis of experimental studies. The dates received in the physiology of higher nervous activity very important in interpretation of results of an experimental study. Our students will go into the review and the analysis of modern methods of human brain investigations in this lecture.

Slavutskaya М.V. Cognitive processes and saccades programming (lecture, 1.5 – 2 academic hours)

Moiseeva V.V. Functional brain asymmetry in connection with visual perception in human (lecture, 1 academic hour)

Slavutskaya М.V., Moiseeva V.V., Kotenev A.V.. Saccadic eye movements, attention processe and presaccadic brain potentials in human. Workshop-demonstration (3 hours)

One of the perspective approaches in researches of human cognitive functions is studying of neurophysiological mechanisms of saccadic eye movements programming. Saccades are a model for study such processes, as perception, attention, decision-making and spatial memory. Studying of event related and presaccadic brain potentials in comparison with results of neurophysiological researches on primates and clinical data allows to investigate mechanisms of eye movements programming. Many experimental paradigms (Gap, Overlap, Cost-benefit, Double step, «antysaccades», « memory-guided saccades», «distracters»), giving the chance to estimate the contribution of separate cognitive functions in saccade programming and to reveal the neurophysiological nature and a substratum of these processes are developed in modern western psychophysiology. Oculomotor and visual systems represent the whole system and studying of a role of visual asymmetry in the organization of eye movements and mechanisms of functioning of the dominant and subdominant eye are actual also in this connection.

Modern neuro - and psychophysiological dates about main cognitive functions included in processes of saccades programming, about the functional brain asymmetry connected with perception of stimuli and movements preparation, and also about EEG-correlates of these processes in human will be presented in lectures of the Module 2. Introduction of different psychophysiological paradigms of a visual stimuli presentation, methods of EEG analysis, averaging of the visually-guided potentials and methods of their analysis for revealing of neurophysiological correlates of the cognitive processes involved in saccadic eye movements preparation students can get at a workshop.

Module 2  - 17.06.2011

 Latanov A.V. (lecture and workshop). Electorophysiological correlates of the processes of selective attention at the visual search task solution in human (by using of videooculography method)

The human constantly visually scans a visual environment in an everyday life at performance of different activity. Scanning process consists from consecutive saccades and fixations. Such voluntary oculomotor activity is realized under control of mechanisms of selective attention. Often attention researches are limited only by eyes movements’ parameters, assuming that the look direction coincides with focus of the attention which is necessary for recognition of visual objects. However situations when look and attention focuses don't coincide at navigation in the difficult visual environment can't be excluded at realization any cognitive activity. For a long time it is well-known that involving of attention processes leads to changes in a functional condition that is accompanied by decrease in amplitude of EEG-potentials in alpha-band, named desynchronization. Such desynchronization accompanies the different mental activity - perception, recognition, the decision of mnemonic and semantic tasks, decision-making. Besides, executive components of voluntary activity (initiation, realization and suppression of motor acts) also bring the contribution to EEG-dynamics in alpha-band.

Combined registration of eye movements and EEG in special paradigms allows to divide effects of perceptive and motor components of voluntary activity. Such integration expands a spectrum of attention mechanisms researches at navigation in the difficult visual environment. Use of an original noninvasive videooculography technique for registration of eyes movements will be shown on a workshop of the Module 3. Parallel EEG-registration will allow to estimate objectively a functional statement of subjects at performance of visual search task.

Module 3  - 18.06.2011.

A. Kaplan - lectures:

Theoretical bases and experimental grounds for the technology brain-computer interface ( 2 academic hours)

Application of technology brain-computer interface (2 academic hours)

A Kochetova – Workshop

Workshop on Technology-computer interface: two concurrent Terminals (4 academic hours)

The brain-computer interface (BCI) technology in recent years has become one of the leading paradigms of scientific research in psychophysiology. This technology is based on a person's ability to learn arbitrary control parameters of the electroencephalogram, or its fast to concentrate the attention on one of the objects of visual scenes, allows a person to control external processes and objects without the mediation of nerves and muscles. In fact, the BCI technology allows a person to establish communication with the outside world directly from the brain through the biotech complex registration, processing and classification of EEG patterns and reactions. Each such pattern or any such reaction could potentially be a signal for a code of communication or management. In the lectures of Module 1 will be presented the history of ideas, which led to the creation of modern brain-computer interface, the device description of different types of BCI, as well as options for the application of BCI in real life. Accompanying these lectures workshops will allow the students to become testers of BCI systems created in the neurointerfaces laboratory of biological faculty of Moscow State University, in particular: without touching the keyboard to type text, to control games, search for information in hypertext structures.

Deadline for registration on the course - 15.05.2011

 

 


Speakers:

professor, D.Sc. Kaplan Alexander Ya., Department of Human Physiology,
professor, D.Sc. Shulgovskiy Valeriy V., head the department of Higher nervous Activity
D.Sc. leading researcher, Slavutskaya Maria V., department of Higher nervous Activity,
professor, D.Sc. Latanov Alexander V., department of Higher nervous,
PhD, senior scientist, Moiseeva Victoria V., department of Higher nervous Activity,
Ph.D, senior scientist, Kochetova Arina G., department of Human Physiology
scientist, Kotenev Alexey., department of Higher nervous Activity

Duration(days): 
3
Place: 
Lomonosov MSU